The strange orbits of some objects in the farthest reaches of our solar system, hypothesized by some astronomers to be perturbed by an unknown planet (Planet 9), can instead be explained by the combined gravitational force of small objects in the Kuiper Belt orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. While the new theory is not the first to propose that the gravitational forces of a massive disc made of small objects could avoid the need for a ninth planet, it is the first such theory which is able to explain the significant features of the observed orbits while accounting for the mass and gravity of the other eight planets in our solar system.
White dwarf stars are some of the oldest stellar objects in the universe. They are incredibly useful to astronomers, as their predictable lifecycle allows them to be used as cosmic clocks to estimate the age of groups of neighboring stars to a high degree of accuracy. White dwarfs are the remaining cores of red giants after these huge stars have died and shed their outer layers. As they cool, they release their stored up heat over the course of billions of years. Now, the first direct evidence of white dwarf stars cooling and solidifying into crystals has been discovered by astronomers at the University of Warwick in the UK… And it turns out that our skies are filled with them – White dwarfs made of solid oxygen and carbon formed through a phase transition process similar to when water turns into ice, but at much higher temperatures and pressures.
Happy New Year and welcome to the night sky report for January 2019 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. In January, the northern hemisphere features beautiful views of the binary star Capella - a pair of giant yellow stars, Aldebaran - a red giant star, two star clusters—the Hyades (Caldwell 41) and the Pleiades (M45), and the Crab Nebula (M1). The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard.
Following its successful fly-by of Pluto in July 2015, NASA's New Horizons mission has now performed a second fly-by – this time of an entirely new kind of world deep in the Kuiper Belt. NASA scientists released the first detailed images of the most distant object ever explored — the Kuiper Belt object Ultima Thule. Its remarkable appearance -- two spherical objects touching together in the shape of a snowman, unlike anything we've seen before -- sheds new light on the processes that built our Solar System planets four and a half billion years ago. New Horizon’s images of Ultima Thule unveil the very first stages of our Solar System's history.
Magnetic field lines tangled like spaghetti in a bowl, as found in black holes, might be behind the most powerful particle accelerators in the universe. That’s the result of a new computational study by researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which simulated particle emissions from distant active galaxies. SLAC scientists have found a new way to explain how these black hole plasma jets boost particles to the highest energies observed in the universe. The results could prove useful for fusion and accelerator research on Earth.
Welcome to the night sky report for December 2018 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. Saturn’s iconic rings are clearly visible with backyard telescopes in early December. Mercury and Venus appear later in the month. Also look for Eta Cassiopeiae, a double star, with binoculars or a small telescope to discern its gold and blue hues. Finally, don’t miss the mid-December Geminid meteor shower. You could see as many as 60 colorful meteors per hour. The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard.
NASA’s current mission to Mars -- InSight -- is expected to land on the Red Planet on November 26, 2018. Only about 40 percent of the missions ever sent to Mars -- by any space agency -- have been successful. The US is the only nation whose missions have survived a Mars landing. The thin atmosphere -- just 1 percent of Earth’s -- means that there’s little friction to slow down a spacecraft. Despite that, NASA has had a long and successful track record at Mars. Since 1965, it has flown-by, orbited, landed on, and roved across the surface of the Red Planet. InSight, short for “Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport,” is designed to give Mars its first thorough check-up since it formed 4.5 billion years ago. InSight complements the numerous missions that are orbiting Mars and roving around on the planet's surface. The lander's science instruments will look for tectonic activity and meteorite impacts on Mars, study how much heat is still flowing through the planet, and track the planet's wobble as it orbits the Sun. This will help answer key questions about how the rocky planets of the Solar System formed.
After nine years in deep space collecting data that indicates our sky is filled with billions of hidden planets, NASA’s Kepler space telescope has run out of the vital fuel needed for further science operations. NASA has decided to retire the spacecraft within its current, safe orbit, away from Earth. Kepler leaves a legacy of more than 2600 planet discoveries from outside our solar system, many of which could be promising places for life. But there is still much data that has been collected and is yet to be analyzed. Scientists are expected to spend the next decade or more in search of new discoveries in the treasure trove of data that Kepler has amassed.
Welcome to the night sky report for November 2018 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. Some fish (Pisces), a ram (Aries), and a triangle (Triangulum) are all found in the November night sky. Also be sure to catch the Taurid meteor shower, which features 5 to 10 meteors per hour on its peak night of November 5 to 6. In addition, meteors will be radiating from the constellation Leo on the evening of November 17th and the early morning of November 18th. The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard.
Neanderthals lived in Europe and parts of Asia until they became extinct about 40,000 years ago. For more than a hundred years, paleontologists and anthropologists have been striving to uncover the evolutionary relationship of Neanderthals to modern humans. What does the Neanderthal genome divulge about modern humans, and how do we differ from each other? Which human capacities and characteristics hark back to Neanderthals? Why did our closest relative become extinct? One thing is now certain -- the Neanderthal and modern humans interbred -- and today we are far more closely related than we previously believed. Recently, Stanford University scientists have found that interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans may have given modern humans some important genetic tools needed to survive – One being the ability to combat viral infections.
What happens when a new technology is so advanced and precise that it operates on a scale beyond our ability to accurately characterize and measure? That happens when lasers used to produce ultrashort pulses in the femtosecond range (10 ^-15 seconds) are far too short to visualize. Although some measurements are possible, nothing beats a clear image according to researchers at INRS (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique), a part of the Universite du Quebec network in Canada. Working with colleagues at Caltech, they have developed T-CUP, the world’s fastest camera, capable of capturing ten trillion (10 ^13) frames per second. This new camera literally captures photon pulses in mid-air and makes it possible to freeze time and see phenomena in extremely slow motion.
Welcome to the night sky report for October 2018 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. Look for Pegasus, the great winged horse of Greek mythology, prancing across the autumn night sky. Binoculars and small telescopes will reveal the glowing nucleus and spiral arms of our neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy. Don’t miss the Orionid meteor shower, which peaks on the night of October 21 to 22. The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard.
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