The Sun’s corona, invisible to the human eye except when it appears briefly as a fiery halo of plasma during a solar eclipse, remains a puzzle even to scientists who study it closely. Beginning 1,300 miles from the Sun’s surface and extending millions more in every direction, it is more than a hundred times hotter than lower layers much closer to the fusion reactor at the Sun’s core. A team of physicists at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) led by Gregory Fleishman, has recently discovered a phenomenon that may begin to untangle what they call “one of the greatest challenges for solar modeling” – determining the physical mechanisms that heat the upper atmosphere to 1 million degrees Fahrenheit and higher.
This week marks the twentieth anniversary of “first light” for the telescope behind the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which has gone on to create by far the largest three-dimensional map of the Universe ever made. Early in the morning of May 10th, 1998, the observers and engineers pointed the Sloan Foundation Telescope to the celestial equator and light went through to the survey’s exquisitely sensitive camera. When dawn broke after a long night’s work, SDSS observer Dan Long emailed his usual observer’s log summarizing what happened. After describing the technical details of the observations, and before noting a series of newly identified problems to fix, he wrote: “Wow; What a night!”
Welcome to the night sky report for May 2018 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. As the evenings grow warmer, head outside to peer deep into the sky for a view of the Sombrero Galaxy in Virgo and the Whirlpool Galaxy in Canes Venatici. This May will also bring us a spectacular view of the full disk of Jupiter, Saturn’s iconic rings, and the Eta Aquarid meteor shower. The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard.
Welcome to the night sky report for April 2018 -- Your guide to the constellations, deep sky objects, planets, and celestial events that are observable during the month. The night sky is truly a celestial showcase. Get outside and explore its wonders from your own backyard and follow the advice of James Marshall Hendrix (apparently a fellow admirer of the heavens): "Excuse me while I kiss the sky."
There are many reasons that the Crab Nebula is such a well-studied object. It is one of a handful of cases where there is strong historical evidence for when the star exploded (1054 AD). Having this definitive timeline helps astronomers understand the details of the explosion and its aftermath. The latest image of the Crab Nebula is a composite that was taken with Chandra, Hubble, and Spitzer. At the center it shows a quickly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star called a pulsar. The combination of rapid rotation and a strong magnetic field generates an intense electromagnetic field that creates jets of matter and anti-matter moving away from both the north and south poles of the pulsar, and an intense wind flowing out in the equatorial direction.
The good news: Astronomers have made the most precise measurement to date of the rate at which the universe is expanding. The potentially unsettling news: This may mean that there is something unknown about the makeup of the universe because the new numbers remain at odds with independent measurements of the early universe's expansion rate. Is something weird going on with physics in the depths of space? Researchers suggest that there may be new physics at work to explain the inconsistency. One idea is that the universe contains a new subatomic particle that travels close to the speed of light. Such speedy particles, collectively called "Dark Radiation," include previously known particles like neutrinos. Another possibility is that dark matter (an invisible form of matter not made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons) interacts more strongly with normal matter or radiation than previously assumed.
One of the biggest mysteries in astro-particle physics has been the origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, very high energy neutrinos, and high energy gamma rays. Now, a new theoretical model based on work by Penn State and University of Maryland researchers, reveals that these extreme energy space particles may have a unified origin in cosmic rays that are accelerated by powerful jets emanating from supermassive black holes. The new model explains the natural origins of all three types of "cosmic messenger" particles simultaneously and is the first astrophysical model of its kind based on detailed numerical computations.
Does the title of this article intrigue you? It should. It has Click-Bait written all over it. Now that I have your attention, you are going to hear my point of view, whether you like it or not. Am I trying to inform you, teach you, or simply entertain you? Am I trying to sell you something? Maybe I am just trying to persuade you to see things my way. The reality is that you don't know what my purpose is until you read what I have to say. Then you will have to determine if what I am saying is Fact, Opinion, or Propaganda. That's where the Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose Test (the CRAAP Test), developed by the California State University - Chico, can help.
What is a planet? For generations the answer was easy -- A big ball of rock or gas that orbited the Sun. And there were nine of them in our Solar System. But then astronomers started finding more Pluto-sized objects orbiting beyond Neptune. Then they found Jupiter-sized objects circling distant stars. First by the handful and then by the hundreds. Suddenly the answer wasn't so easy. Were all these newly found things planets? The International Astronomical Union (IAU), who is in charge of naming newly discovered worlds, tackled the question at their 2006 meeting. They tried to come up with a definition of a planet that everyone could agree on. But the astronomers couldn't agree, so they voted and picked a definition that they thought would work. The results have been mixed. In the end, the IAU did accomplish one thing -- They figured out a way to turn something simple into something complex.
An image of a single positively charged Strontium atom, held nearly motionless by electric fields, has won the overall prize in a science photography competition organized by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK. The photo by David Nadlinger, from the University of Oxford, shows the atom held by the fields emanating from the metal electrodes surrounding it.
During 1957, the US and the Soviet Union worked diligently on plans to orbit satellites as part of the 1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY). Given the Cold War competition between the two superpowers, the first to launch a satellite could claim technological preeminence. The Soviet Union leaped ahead of the US and stunned the world when they orbited Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957. Explorer 1 successfully launched from Cape Canaveral on January 31, 1958 -- 60 years ago today.
Supernovae, the explosions of stars, have been observed by the thousands and in all cases, the events signal one thing -- the death of a star... Until now. Astrophysicists at UC Santa Barbara (UCSB) and astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) have reported a remarkable exception -- a star that has exploded multiple times over a period of more than 50 years. This new observation is challenging existing theories of how certain stars end their lives.
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